The End is near for American Scientific Supremacy

Over the years, the US has remained at the par as the world scientific superpower. Many of the American scientists have been receiving generous funds and support from the government. At the same time, the scientists have been receiving world-class training from world best scientific institutions in US and other regions.

However, the future of the US domination in science is approaching its edge. Many different nations have shown immense interest in funding scientific projects and research in the bid to uplift their scientific statuses. One of these nations is China.

Recently, China has successfully convinced the world on its ability to achieve scientific supremacy just like America or other nations with scientific supremacy. A research done by OECD Science, in the Technology and Industry Outlook of 2014, showed that China will be spending more on scientific R&D than US in a period of 5 years to come. This shows that China will make significant strides to improve in science more than other nations.

The OECD Science research showed that China spent about US $400 billion as the budget for science in 2014. By 2016, this budget was expected to rise to US $600 billion. This was a massive increase in 50%. By 2016, this anticipated increase in scientific budget in China was reported to have taken place.

On the other hand, in 2014, US spent $410 billion as the budget for science. At the same point, OECD Science reported that US budget for science will rise from $410 billion to $490 billion between then and 2016. This was an increase in 19% in the resources devoted for scientific advancement.

Comparing these two countries, China had invested more of resources in developing science. This can be seen in the massive 31 percentage gap between the two countries. The budgetary difference between them can predict the fate that the two nations will take in a period of 5 years to come.

The move embraced by China in scientific development shows great potential of improvement in science. However, some critics argue that China’s positive turn in scientific advancement is at the expense of the quality of research. Firstly, this criticism has been based on the lower quality scientific paper from the Chinese scientific labs.

However, since China funding sources only checks the quality of the scientific papers which are published during awarding of merit, there is not any potential that the nation will fail to acquire funding in the near future. Therefore, China will continue to become dominant in this field.

Secondly, China has given higher preference on infrastructure development rather than bench science. Therefore, with the resultant less well-equipped scientific labs in China, it may be impossible to achieve quality research papers from the available labs like other world nations.

Although the world scientific food chain has always ranked US at the highest level, it is apparent that in 5 years to come, we may not retain the same domination. The predictable scientific supremacy by China will draw our scientists to their better environments for learning. This might pose a real threat in American scientific supremacy.

What Is The Importance of Chemistry In Biotechnology?

Chemistry is a major part of biotechnology. Most of the reactions and processes that are found in biotechnology are based on chemistry, for example, nanotechnology. Also, chemistry provides the ground under which different processes and reactions are explained as they take place.

Chemistry is the source of all the major discoveries, concepts, and also the advances found in the field of biotechnology. Therefore, these two fields have been both linked to each other in different fronts.

 Importance of Chemistry In Biotechnology

Through forming a baseline for numerous biotechnology concepts, chemistry is an essential part in biotechnology. The following are some of the importance associated with chemistry in biotechnology:

1) Explanation of the Chemical Processes

Different processes such as food formation processes, fermentation and formation of alcohol and beer, polymerization, and chemical bonding are explained in the way that elements are mixed to form different compounds.

These concepts and processes show the interaction of bio-molecules and elements to form compounds. Chemistry provides explanation of chemical processes in the material sciences. This shows the importance of chemistry in biotechnology.

2) Denoting the Elements and Compounds in Biotechnology

Many elements in biotechnology are denoted using their chemical names and phrases. In biotechnology, some elements may not be easily denoted. Therefore, observations and interpretation is the easiest way through which elements and compounds can be denoted.

Normally, chemical properties are used to acknowledge the presence of elements and compounds such as acids, gases, water, and chemical products. These properties include: smell, physical appearance, taste, and even velocity.

3) Chemical Reactions are Heavily involved in Biotechnology

Different chemical reactions such as nano particle hydrophobic coating, polymerization, rusting, hydrogenation, and chemical bonding can only be explained through chemistry. All these processes are usually used to understand and also apply biotechnology.

4) For Improvement of Health Care and Medicine

Medicines and health care processes are as a result of use of elements to make manufacture medicine and drugs. The medicinal industries heavily employ biotechnology to develop new pharmaceuticals which can be used to deal with diseases and conditions.

Drugs and medicine usually contain a mixture of different elements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc among many others. These elements are mixed according to their requirements to cure diseases and conditions or according to their deficiency in the body.

5) Chemistry is Useful in Biorefinery

Biorefinery is a biotechnological process which aims at producing renewable feedstock in a bid to provide alternative solutions for the petroleum products which are used rampantly in the world.

The process encompasses chemical reactions through which items such as corn, switch grass, miscanthus, giant reed, and energy cane are refined to make biofuels such as biodiesel. This process is a representation of how chemistry is heavily used in biotechnology.


Numerous concepts, processes, and reactions that are found in biotechnology originated initially from chemistry. Thus, chemistry makes it easy to learn and understand biotechnology and its entire concepts. Individuals with deep knowledge in chemistry can easily learn and apply biotechnology in various aspects of life.

Top 10 Engineering Fields In the World

Engineering remains among the top career fields in the world today. There are very many vacancies in the job market which requires different engineering qualifications. The following are some engineering fields which have recently emerged on top:000

1) Software Engineering

Engineering Fields In the World

In this field, the principles which are essential in engineering are applied to software. Therefore, engineers in these field works to create, develop, improve, and maintain software to be used in different systems. Jobs in this field range from $50,000 and above in salaries.

2) Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Fields In the World

The world has grown immensely in industrialization. This has maintained mechanical engineering at the par. Mechanical engineers are needed in different industries to carry out different tasks. By 2020, over 20,000 jobs are expected to increase in this field. Jobs in mechanical engineering field range from $70,000 and above.

3) Electrical Engineering

Engineering Fields In the World

Electronic appliances as well as electronic systems and tasks are in plenty across the world. Mainly, electrical engineers are needed in firms, industries, and in residential areas among other places. In this field, jobs are increasing in over 15% in every 3 years. Salaries are ranging from $80,000 and above.

4) Architectural Engineering

Engineering Fields In the World

The world of architecture expands every day with the emergence of new designs and styles. Also, in this era marked with immense growth of cities and towns, architectural engineering has become a useful field in the society. An additional of over 20,000 jobs is expected in the field by 2020. Architectural engineers earn around $100,000 and above.

5) Chemical Engineering

Engineering Fields In the World

Chemistry is essentially available in all the dimensions of life. Knowledge of chemistry increases the ability to understand the world, medicine, life, and technology among other chemical fields. Chemical engineers usually earn around $50,000 and above.

6) Computer Engineering

Engineering Fields In the World

This field integrates electrical knowledge with computer science. Engineers in this field work to create and maintain software and hardware. Almost every sector, for example,firms, systems, organizations and industries are heavily relying on computerization in order to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. Computer engineers earn $60,000 and above.

7) Nuclear Engineering

Engineering Fields In the World

Although it is only available in a few nations, nuclear engineering is among the top most fields in engineering. Nuclear engineers are involved in developing nuclear technologies. They are also involved in devising safety measures while dealing with nuclear. They earn $150,000 and above.

8) Petroleum Engineering

Engineering Fields In the World

Petroleum engineering is only available in a few nations such as Kuwait, Malaysia, and Saudi Arabia. In a world that has the highest demand for oil and energy; petroleum engineers are among the top earners in the world as they earn around $150,000 and above.

9) Aerospace/aeronautical Engineering

Engineering Fields In the World

Engineers in aerospace engineering usually conduct research, design, develop, and also test different aircrafts. This field deals with both aircrafts and spacecrafts. Aerospace engineers earn about $100,000 and above.

10) Industrial Engineering

Engineering Fields In the World

These engineers are involved in developing effective and efficient processes and systems that can be applicable in industries for production purposes. This field encompasses sectors such as industrial safety, social sciences, and management among others. Industrial engineers earn around $80,000 and above.


Engineering is among the top careers that are admired by many people in the world. It is applicable in almost every sector of life. Therefore, investing in exploring a field in engineering may guarantee you a bright future.